Tag: Bankruptcy


OCC’s Recovery Planning Proposal

Dan Ryan is Leader of the Financial Services Advisory Practice at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. This post is based on a PwC publication by Mr. Ryan, Mike Alix, Adam Gilbert, and Armen Meyer.

On December 17th, the Office of Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) proposed recovery planning standards for banks with assets of $50 billion or more. [1] The proposal was released exactly one year after the FDIC released guidance for covered insured depository institutions (CIDI) that significantly raised the resolution planning bar for many of these same banks. [2]

Most institutions will find that they will be able to leverage their existing risk management, business continuity planning, capital and liquidity planning, stress testing, and resolution plans in order to build their recovery plan. Many of the proposed standards’ requirements can be met by modifying existing bodies of work.

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Recovery Planning for Large National Banks

This post is based on a Sullivan & Cromwell LLP publication by C. Andrew GerlachRebecca J. Simmons, Mark J. Welshimer and Connie Y. Lam. Mr. Gerlach, Ms. Simmons, and Mr. Welshimer are partners in the Financial Services Group; and Ms. Lam is a firm associate.

On December 16, 2015, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (the “OCC”) solicited public comment, through a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (the “NPR”), [1] on proposed guidelines to establish standards for recovery planning by certain large insured national banks, insured Federal savings associations and insured Federal branches of foreign banks (the “Guidelines”).
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Comment Letter of 18 Law Professors on the Trust Indenture Act

Adam J. Levitin is Professor of Law at Georgetown University Law Center, specializing in bankruptcy, commercial law, and financial regulation. This post contains the text of a letter spearheaded by Prof. Levitin, and co-signed by 18 professors of bankruptcy and corporate finance law, regarding a proposed omnibus appropriations rider that would amend the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. The complete letter is available here.

We are legal scholars of corporate finance. We write because we are concerned by a proposed omnibus appropriations rider that would amend the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 without any legislative hearings or opportunity for public comment on the proposed amendment.

As you may know, the Trust Indenture Act is one of the pillars of American securities regulation. Congress passed the Trust Indenture Act in the wake of the Great Depression to protect bondholders in restructurings. Among other things, the Trust Indenture Act provides that no bondholder’s right to payment or to institute suit for nonpayment may be impaired or affected without that individual bondholder’s consent. These provisions are intended to protect bond investors by requiring any restructuring of bonds to occur subject to the transparency of a court supervised bankruptcy process, absent bondholder consent to a debt restructuring.

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Bankruptcy Versus Bailout of Socially Important Non-Financial Institutions

Shlomit Azgad-Tromer is a visiting scholar at Berkeley Law School. This post is based on the article Too Important to Fail: Bankruptcy Versus Bailout of Socially Important Non-Financial Institutions.

Systemically important financial institutions are broadly considered to pose a risk to the entire economy upon failure. Thus governments act upon their failure, providing them with an implied insurance policy for ongoing liquidity. Yet governments frequently provide de facto liquidity insurance for non-financial institutions as well. For example, recently in the U.K., 35 hospital trusts were sharing £536 million in non-repayable bailouts in order to keep services running smoothly during 2013-2014. A decade earlier, a federal bankruptcy judge approved California’s multibillion-dollar bailout of Pacific Gas & Electric Corporation. In an effort to stabilize and sustain air transportation after 9/11, the U.S. Congress passed the Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act, which provided the airline industry with financial aid valued at as much as $10 billion. In all of these cases, taxpayer money was used to rescue non-financial institutions.

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Quadrant v. Vertin: Determining Rights of Creditors

Steven Epstein is a partner and Co-Head of the Mergers & Acquisitions practice at Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP. This post is based on a Fried Frank publication by Mr. Epstein, J. Christian Nahr, Brad Eric Scheler, and Gail Weinstein. This post is part of the Delaware law series, which is cosponsored by the Forum and Corporation Service Company; links to other posts in the series are available here.

In Quadrant Structured Products Company, Ltd. v. Vertin (Oct. 20, 2015), the Delaware Court of Chancery, in a post-trial decision, rejected Quadrant’s challenges to transactions by Athilon Capital Corp., with Athilon’s sole stockholder (private equity firm Merced), after Athilon had returned to solvency following a long period of insolvency. Merced held all of Athilon’s equity and all of its junior notes; and both Quadrant and Merced held the company’s publicly traded senior notes. Quadrant challenged Athilon’s (i) repurchases of senior notes held by Merced (the “Note Repurchases”) and (ii) purchases of certain relatively illiquid securities owned by Merced (the “Securities Purchases”). A majority of the Athilon board that approved the challenged transactions was viewed by the court as non-independent (with two directors affiliated with Merced; the Athilon CEO; and two independent directors). Vice Chancellor Laster, applying New York law, rejected (i) Quadrant’s claims that the Note Repurchases (a) were prohibited by the indenture and (b) were fraudulent conveyances; and (ii) Quadrant’s derivative claim that the Note Repurchases and the Securities Purchases constituted a breach of the directors’ fiduciary duties.

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Illegality and Hardball in Government’s Nationalization of AIG

Lawrence A. Cunningham is Henry St. George Tucker III Research Professor of Law at George Washington University Law School. This post builds on Professor Cunningham’s recent article published in The National Interest, available here. Professor Cunningham is co-author with Hank Greenberg, former chairman and CEO of American International Group (AIG), of The AIG Story.

Suppose your bank offers to lend you money to buy a home, and even if you repaid the loan, the bank would retain ownership of your home as well. Would you sign up? Would you expect a business organization to accept equivalent loan-plus-forfeiture terms? I don’t think so but that is what the U.S. government’s “bailout” of American International Group (AIG) involved and one reason a federal judge has declared it an illegal exaction in violation of the Constitution of the United States.

In the fall of 2008, Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson and New York Federal Reserve President Timothy Geithner demanded the permanent surrender of nearly an 80% stake in AIG as “security” for a usurious loan. They then fired AIG’s CEO, replaced its board members, took control of all the company’s affairs, and divested nearly half the company’s worldwide assets in a series of fire sales—all while using subterfuge and deception to avoid a shareholder vote the officials agreed was required and promised would be held.

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Gold or Fool’s Gold?

Douglas P. Bartner is partner in the Financial Restructuring & Insolvency Group, Shearman & Sterling LLP. This post is based on an article by Mr. Bartner, Fredric Sosnick, and Cynthia Urda Kassis that first appeared in the Mining Journal.

By mid-2014 the consequences of several years of significant liquidity constraints in the traditional sources of funding for the mining sector, combined with depressed commodity prices, became increasingly evident.

Official corporate announcements and market rumours appeared sporadically at first and then with disturbing regularity as major and mid-tier companies began selling “non-core” assets and juniors tried to sell themselves or entered into insolvency proceedings when that was not an option. This increased level of distressed transaction activity in the mining sector which began in 2014 looks set to continue through 2015.

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Financial Distress, Stock Returns, and the 1978 Bankruptcy Reform Act

Dirk Hackbarth is Associate Professor of Finance at Boston University. This post is based on an article authored by Professor Hackbarth; Rainer Haselmann, Professor of Finance, Accounting, and Taxation at Goethe University, Frankfurt; and David Schoenherr of the Department of Finance at London Business School.

In our article, Financial Distress, Stock Returns, and the 1978 Bankruptcy Reform Act, forthcoming in The Review of Financial Studies, we examine how bargaining power in distress affects the pricing of corporate securities. The nature of Chapter 11 makes bargaining an important factor in distressed reorganizations. Reorganization outcomes depend on the relative bargaining power of the parties involved. A number of papers document that shareholders receive concessions in distressed reorganization even when creditors are not paid in full despite of their contractual (junior) status as residual claimants (Franks and Torous 1989; Eberhart, Moore and Roenfeldt 1990; Weiss 1990). To this end, our research exploits an exogenous variation in the allocation of bargaining power between shareholders and debtholders due to the 1978 Bankruptcy Reform Act to examine how the ex post allocation of cash flows in distress affects the ex ante pricing (return and risk) of corporate securities, such as risky debt and levered equity.

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ABI Commission to Study the Reform of Chapter 11 Report

The following post comes to us from Donald S. Bernstein, Partner and head of the Insolvency and Restructuring Practice at Davis Polk & Wardwell LLP, and is based on a Davis Polk memorandum authored by Mr. Bernstein, Marshall S. Huebner, Damian S. Schaible, and Kevin J. Coco. The complete publication is available here.

On December 8, the American Bankruptcy Institute Commission to Study the Reform of Chapter 11 released its Final Report and Recommendations. The American Bankruptcy Institute organized the 23-member Commission in 2011 to study and address how financial markets, products and participants have evolved and, in some respects, outgrown the current chapter 11 framework, enacted in 1978. Since the 19th century, Congress has overhauled the corporate reorganization provisions of the federal bankruptcy law approximately every 40 years, and the 40th anniversary of the enactment of the 1978 Bankruptcy Code is just four years away. The Commission Report, which spans nearly 400 pages, recommends significant changes that seek to reconfigure our corporate insolvency system.

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New ISDA Protocol Limits Buy-Side Remedies in Financial Institution Failure

The following post comes to us from Stephen D. Adams, associate in the investment management and hedge funds practice groups at Ropes & Gray LLP, and is based on a Ropes & Gray publication by Mr. Adams, Leigh R. Fraser, Anna Lawry, and Molly Moore.

The ISDA 2014 Resolution Stay Protocol, published on November 12, 2014, by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Inc. (ISDA), [1] represents a significant shift in the terms of the over-the-counter derivatives market. It will require adhering parties to relinquish termination rights that have long been part of bankruptcy “safe harbors” for derivatives contracts under bankruptcy and insolvency regimes in many jurisdictions. While buy-side market participants are not required to adhere to the Protocol at this time, future regulations will likely have the effect of compelling market participants to agree to its terms. This change will impact institutional investors, hedge funds, mutual funds, sovereign wealth funds, and other buy-side market participants who enter into over-the-counter derivatives transactions with financial institutions.

Among the key features of the Protocol are the following:

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